Once the key sustainability variables have been identified, it is important to determine how, and when, these will be collected throughout the project.
The procurement authority can prescribe a specific process on the tendering documents, or it can set certain guidelines that will serve as the basis to negotiate the process with the selected supplier. This process will be part of what is known as the “project’s methodology” and, in any case, it should be clearly defined and signed off by both parties.
Request relevant documentation
The first source of data in a procurement process will be the documents which include project specifications regarding resource use. These can normally include detailed information on material use, vehicle and machinery use, and itemized labor units. They are normally used as the basis to determine the cost of the project, and contain most of the project’s relevant data. These documents can be sometimes referred to as Cost Reports, Bills of Quantities (BOQ), or Schedule of Works.
Gather evidence during implementation
Once the project specifications are set, there are different ways to collect relevant data in order to monitor implementation. Below are some examples of ways this can be done.
Questionnaires can be designed to capture the desired data variables during the project. To ensure that all relevant data is collected, these questionnaires should be designed both for the main contractor in the project, and all the subcontractors and suppliers in the supply chain.
Construction projects are usually divided into certain milestones. These milestones are usually designed to monitor progression, and establish when payments from the contracting authority to the supplier are going to be made.
Sometimes, whether a milestone is met also depends on the quality control reports that are submitted by the supplier. These reports include all the relevant information regarding quality standards, and relevant tests, that have been carried out according to the agreed terms.
It can be established that these reports also include relevant data on sustainability variables (i.e. data regarding the use of sustainable, recycled, or reused materials).
- The supplier can set up a “Materials Register”, indicating provenance, quantity and destination of all materials used during the project, this list should be available to the procuring agency for evaluation. To monitor the use of sustainable materials, the procuring agency can also require the supplier to submit proof of purchase of these materials, together with any document that guarantees compliance with agreed characteristics.
- To monitor compliance with Site Waste Management Plans (SWMP), a registry can be used to record each time a waste container leaves the site. To facilitate this process, there should be someone in charge of monitoring waste management, and training relevant stakeholders.
Involving third-parties to audit the project is one way to collect relevant data. Sometimes procurement authorities hire a specialist consultancy to monitor the sustainability of a specific construction project.
This company will collect the relevant sustainability data set on the tender documents. This is common in projects funded by development banks. The supplier can also include hiring a third-party to monitor the sustainability of the project as part of their proposal to meet the targets set in the tendering documents.
One of the ways to monitor construction projects is to designate a dedicated government Task Force to visit construction sites intermittently and without previous notice. This can be especially useful to collect any relevant data on labor conditions.
Monitoring construction projects can require a lot of workforce and, often, public agencies do not have the resources to monitor and collect data from all ongoing and past construction projects. For this reason, engaging civil society in monitoring activities can be particularly useful in the construction sector. Citizen collaboration can be required to collect data on health and safety measures, labor rights, and corruption (i.e. abandoned projects).
- BOQ Template - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
- Site Waste Management Plan Data Form. Netregs.
The EBRD has developed a BOQ template for “fit-out” project, which is a construction stage where a built space is prepared for occupation. This template can help as guidance to understand what type of data is gathered in BOQs in construction projects.
Engaging civil society in monitoring activities:
- MONITORES CIUDADANOS DE CONTROL I PERU (ES)
- ELEFANTES BLANCOS APP I COLOMBIA (ES)
Peru has established a system that allows citizens to visit construction sites at the beginning, during, and/or completion of public works in order to monitor the construction progress.
Colombia has developed an app in order to promote the citizen control of white elephant projects (neglected, abandoned or over-billed public works projects).